Immigration to Australia
Geography and Climate
With its abundance of mountains, rivers, deserts,
rainforests, coral reefs and islands, Australia is undoubtedly
one of the most beautiful and mega-diverse countries in the
world. With a landmass of about 7,617,930 square kilometres,
Australia is the world’s smallest continent yet also the sixth
largest country by total area. Its composition is also similar
to an island; located on the Indo-Australian Plate, it is also
surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. For these reasons,
it is known as the “island continent”.
Australia is divided into six states and two
major mainland territories. The six states are New South Wales,
Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western
Australia. The two major mainland territories are the Australian
Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
Meanwhile, Australia’s climate is greatly
influenced by ocean currents, leading to periodic drought,
cyclones (in the northern part), and varying amounts of
rainfall. In addition, due to Australia’s size, the climate of
its northern and southern regions differs drastically: whereas
the northern parts typically have warmer tropical and grassland
climates, the southern parts are more temperate. Owing to the
fact that it is situated in the southern hemisphere, Australia’s
winter occurs in June and its summer is in December. Therefore,
there is no “White Christmas” in Australia.
Australia is famous for its “unpolluted”
environment. Here, you may enjoy fresh air and clean water.
Since the air is relatively unpolluted, clear blue skies can be
seen most of the time. However, as this island continent is
located beneath an ozone depletion zone, a 2008 study found that
Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer in the
world. Being the driest inhabited continent, Australia has the
least amount of water. Chronic water shortages do occur because
of droughts or urban population pressures (pollution, sewages,
fertilisers, etc.), and hence, sometimes water restrictions are
enacted in certain Australian cities in response.
The official language of Australia is English,
and the people of Australia are of primarily British and/or
Irish ethnic origin. Over 80% of Australia’s population is of
European ancestry, while most of the rest are of Asian heritage,
with a smaller minority of indigenous (Aboriginal) background.
In fact, major ethnic groups include English, Native
Australians, Irish, Scottish, Italian, German, Chinese and
In terms of creed, over 60% of Australians are
Christian; however, Australia has no state religion. In fact,
the Australian constitution prohibits the federal government
from making any law to establish an official religion, impose
any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any
religion. In other words, you may have the freedom to choose
your own religion if you immigrate to Australia.
There are roughly 25 million people in Australia,
with an estimated annual growth of 1.7% as of 2021. This population is
most densely situated in the states of New South Wales and
Victoria. Their respective capitals, Sydney and Melbourne, are
also the largest cities in Australia. Australia’s population is
concentrated along the coastal region, from Adelaide to Cairns,
with a small concentration around Perth, Western Australia. On
the contrary, Australia’s centre is sparsely populated.
In 2020, Australia’s GDP was $1.38 trillion. The Top 5 Industry Shares of Output
are as follows: Services (57%), Mining (9%), Construction (8%),
Manufacturing (7%) and Retail Trade (5%). As of May 2021,
the unemployment rate in Australia was only 5.1% – most of the job vacancies are in the major
cities. However, as most of the parts of Australia are suburban
lands or farm lands, it is not easy to find a job outside the
Australia has one of the largest capitalist
economies in the world, and its Australian Securities Exchange
in Sydney is the largest of its kind in the South Pacific. The
currency of this country is the Australian dollar (AUD). Having
a liberal economy, Australia is a member of many organizations
such as the APEC, G20, OECD and WTO.
In Australia, there are taxes levied at the
state, federal and local levels. The maximum personal tax is
around 45% with a 1.5% levy on Medicare and around 10% sales tax
on most of the merchandise.
Australia provides great social stability and
various welfare benefits. Forms of income support include age
pensions, Newstart Allowance (unemployment benefit), Youth
Allowance, AUSTUDY Payment (for Indigenous Australians
undergoing studies), Disability Support Pensions, Sickness
Allowance, Carer Payment (for those who provide full-time care),
and Parenting Payments. There is also a publicly funded
universal health care system, known as Medicare, which typically
covers 100% of the hospitalization costs, 75% of general
practitioner costs, and 85% of specialist services. This health
care system is available even after retirement.
Perhaps it is because of this social support
network that Australia's life expectancy at birth was 82.8
years, the seventh highest life expectancy in
the world, according to a 2019 study done among the countries of
the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
In terms of schooling, education is compulsory in
Australia and children are required to attend school from the
age of 5 to 16. Elementary and secondary education is free in
Australia, funded by the government.
To immigrate to Australia and
become an Australia Permanent Resident, you will need to apply for and be
issued a visa that
gives you the indefinite leave to the permanent resident status.
The main category is Family Stream, which is for
people who seek to reunite Australian citizens, Australian permanent
residents and eligible New Zealand citizens with their close family
members. There are a number of migration options for fiancés,
partners, children, parents and other family members of Australian
citizens, Australian permanent residents or eligible New Zealand
Please note that some visa classes within the
Family Stream are subject to being capped and queued. These visas
may have extensive waiting periods and this may affect your decision
to apply for one of these visas.
Another common way is to apply as Professionals
and Other Skilled Migrants. The following visas are the most common
Skilled Independent Visa
Aged Parent Visa
Sponsored Parent (Temporary) Visa (Subclass 870)
Carer Visa (Apply in Australia) (Subclass 836)
Carer Visa (Apply outside Australia) (Subclass 116)
Special Category Visa
and Investment (Permanent) Visa (Subclass 888)
Please press the links above to view the different
requirements and rights of the visas.